In Pursuit of Laziness

Manish Goregaokar's blog

Arenas in Rust

There’s been some discussion about arenas in Rust recently, and I thought I’d write about them.

Arenas aren’t something you would typically reach for in Rust so fewer people know about them; you only really see them in applications for various niche use cases. Usually you can use an arena by pulling in a crate and not using additional unsafe, so there’s no need to be particularly skittish around them in Rust, and it seems like it would be useful knowledge, especially for people coming to Rust from fields where arenas are more common.

Furthermore, there’s a set of really cool lifetime effects involved when implementing self-referential arenas, that I don’t think have been written about before.

I’m mostly writing this to talk about the cool lifetime effects, but I figured it’s worth writing a general introduction that has something for all Rustaceans. If you know what arenas are and just want the cool lifetimes you can skip directly to the section on implementing self-referential arenas. Otherwise, read on.

What’s an arena?

An arena is essentially a way to group up allocations that are expected to have the same lifetime. Sometimes you need to allocate a bunch of objects for the lifetime of an event, after which they can all be thrown away wholesale. It’s inefficient to call into the system allocator each time, and far more preferable to preallocate a bunch of memory for your objects, cleaning it all up at once once you’re done with them.

Broadly speaking, there are two reasons you might wish to use an arena:

Firstly, your primary goal may be to reduce allocation pressure, as mentioned above. For example, in a game or application, there may be large mishmash of per-frame-tick objects that need to get allocated each frame, and then thrown away. This is extremely common in game development in particular, and allocator pressure is something gamedevs tend to care about. With arenas, it’s easy enough to allocate an arena, fill it up during each frame and clear it out once the frame is over. This has additional benefits of cache locality: you can ensure that most of the per-frame objects (which are likely used more often than other objects) are usually in cache during the frame, since they’ve been allocated adjacently.

Another goal might be that you want to write self referential data, like a complex graph with cycles, that can get cleaned up all at once. For example, when writing compilers, type information will likely need to reference other types and other such data, leading to a complex, potentially cyclic graph of types. Once you’ve computed a type you probably don’t need to throw it away individually, so you can use an arena to store all your computed type information, cleaning the whole thing up at once when you’re at a stage where the types don’t matter anymore. Using this pattern allows your code to not have to worry about whether the self-referential bits get deallocated “early”, it lets you make the assumption that if you have a Ty it lives as long as all the other Tys and can reference them directly.

These two goals are not necessarily disjoint: You may wish to use an arena to achieve both goals simultaneously. But you can also just have an arena that disallows self referential types (but has other nice properties). Later in this post I’m going to implement an arena that allows self-referential types but is not great on allocation pressure, mostly for ease of implementation. Typically if you’re writing an arena for self-referential types you can make it simultaneously reduce allocator pressure, but there can be tradeoffs.

How can I use an arena in Rust?

Typically to use an arena you can just pull in a crate that implements the right kind of arena. There are two that I know of that I’ll talk about below, though a cursory search of “arena” on turns up many other promising candidates.

I’ll note that if you just need cyclic graph structures, you don’t have to use an arena, the excellent petgraph crate is often sufficient. slotmap is also useful; it’s a map-like datastructure useful for self-referential data, based on generational indexing.


Bumpalo is a fast “bump allocator”, which allows heterogenous contents, and only allows cycles if you do not care about destructors getting run.

use bumpalo::Bump;

// (example slightly modified from `bumpalo` docs)

// Create a new arena to bump allocate into.
let bump = Bump::new();

// Allocate values into the arena.
let scooter = bump.alloc(Doggo {
    cuteness: u64::max_value(),
    age: 8,
    scritches_required: true,

// Happy birthday, Scooter!
scooter.age += 1;

Every call to Bump::alloc() returns a mutable reference to the allocated object. You can allocate different objects, and they can even reference each other1. By default it does not call destructors on its contents; however you can use bumpalo::boxed (or custom allocators on Nightly) to get this behavior. You can similarly use bumpalo::collections to get bumpalo-backed vectors and strings. bumpalo::boxed will not be allowed to participate in cycles.


typed-arena is an arena allocator that can only store objects of a single type, but it does allow for setting up cyclic references:

// Example from typed-arena docs

use std::cell::Cell;
use typed_arena::Arena;

struct CycleParticipant<'a> {
    other: Cell<Option<&'a CycleParticipant<'a>>>,

let arena = Arena::new();

let a = arena.alloc(CycleParticipant { other: Cell::new(None) });
let b = arena.alloc(CycleParticipant { other: Cell::new(None) });

// mutate them after the fact to set up a cycle

Unlike bumpalo, typed-arena will always run destructors on its contents when the arena itself goes out of scope2.

Implementing a self-referential arena

Self referential arenas are interesting because, typically, Rust is very very wary of self-referential data. But arenas let you clearly separate the step of “I don’t care about this object” and “this object can be deleted” in a way that is sufficient to allow self-referential and cyclic types.

It’s pretty rare to need to implement your own arena – bumpalo and typed-arena cover most of the use cases, and if they don’t cover yours you probably can find something that does on But if you really need to, or if you’re interested in the nitty-gritty lifetime details, this section is for you.

For people less familiar with lifetimes: the lifetimes in the syntaxes &'a Foo and Foo<'b> mean different things. 'a in &'a Foo is the lifetime of Foo, or, at least the lifetime of this reference to Foo. 'b in Foo<'b> is a lifetime parameter of Foo, and typically means something like “the lifetime of data Foo is allowed to reference”.

The key to implementing an arena Arena with entries typed as Entry is in the following rules:

  • Arena and Entry should both have a lifetime parameter: Arena<'arena> and Entry<'arena>
  • Arena methods should all receive Arena<'arena> as &'arena self, i.e. their self type is &'arena Arena<'arena>
  • Entry should almost always be passed around as &'arena Entry<'arena> (it’s useful to make an alias for this)
  • Use interior mutability; &mut self on Arena will make everything stop compiling. If using unsafe for mutability, make sure you have a PhantomData for RefCell<Entry<'arena>> somewhere.

That’s basically it from the lifetime side, the rest is all in figuring what API you want and implementing the backing storage. Armed with the above rules you should be able to make your custom arena work with the guarantees you need without having to understand what’s going on with the underlying lifetimes.

Let’s go through an implementation example, and then dissect why it works.


My crate elsa implements an arena in 100% safe code in one of its examples. This arena does not save on allocations since elsa::FrozenVec requires its contents be behind some indirection, and it’s not generic, but it’s a reasonable way to illustrate how the lifetimes work without getting into the weeds of implementing a really good arena with unsafe.

The example implements an arena of Person<'arena> types, Arena<'arena>. The goal is to implement some kind of directed social graph, which may have cycles.

use elsa::FrozenVec;

struct Arena<'arena> {
    people: FrozenVec<Box<Person<'arena>>>,

elsa::FrozenVec is an append-only Vec-like abstraction that allows you to call .push() without needing a mutable reference, and is how we’ll be able to implement this arena in safe code.

Each Person<'arena> has a list of people they follow but also keeps track of people who follow them:

struct Person<'arena> {
    pub follows: FrozenVec<PersonRef<'arena>>,
    pub reverse_follows: FrozenVec<PersonRef<'arena>>,
    pub name: &'static str,

// following the rule above about references to entry types
type PersonRef<'arena> = &'arena Person<'arena>;

The lifetime 'arena is essentially “the lifetime of the arena itself”. This is where it starts getting weird: typically if your type has a lifetime parameter, the caller gets to pick what goes in there. You don’t get to just say “this is the lifetime of the object itself”, the caller would typically be able to instantiate an Arena<'static> if they wish, or an Arena<'a> for some 'a. But here we’re declaring that 'arena is the lifetime of the arena itself; clearly something fishy is happening here.

Here’s where we actually implement the arena:

impl<'arena> Arena<'arena> {
    fn new() -> Arena<'arena> {
        Arena {
            people: FrozenVec::new(),
    fn add_person(&'arena self, name: &'static str,
                  follows: Vec<PersonRef<'arena>>) -> PersonRef<'arena> {
        let idx = self.people.len();
        self.people.push(Box::new(Person {
            follows: follows.into(),
            reverse_follows: Default::default(),
        let me = &self.people[idx];
        for friend in &me.follows {
            // We're mutating existing arena entries to add references,
            // potentially creating cycles!

    fn dump(&'arena self) {
        // code to print out every Person, their followers, and the people who follow them

Note the &'arena self in add_person.

A good implementation here would typically separate out code handling the higher level invariant of “if A follows B then B reverse_follows A”, but this is just an example.

And finally, we can use the arena like this:

fn main() {
    let arena = Arena::new();
    let lonely = arena.add_person("lonely", vec![]);
    let best_friend = arena.add_person("best friend", vec![lonely]);
    let threes_a_crowd = arena.add_person("threes a crowd", vec![lonely, best_friend]);
    let rando = arena.add_person("rando", vec![]);
    let _everyone = arena.add_person("follows everyone", vec![rando, threes_a_crowd, lonely, best_friend]);

In this case all of the “mutability” happens in the implementation of the arena itself, but it would be possible for this code to add entries directly to the follows/reverse_follows lists, or Person could have RefCells for other kinds of links, or whatever.

How the lifetimes work

So how does this work? As I said earlier, with such abstractions in Rust, the caller typically has freedom to set the lifetime based on what they do with it. For example, if you have a HashMap<K, &'a str>, the 'a will get set based on the lifetime of what you try to insert.

When you construct the Arena its lifetime parameter is indeed still unconstrained, and we can test this by checking that the following code, which forcibly constrains the lifetime, still compiles.

let arena: Arena<'static> = Arena::new();

But the moment you try to do anything with the arena, this stops working:

let arena: Arena<'static> = Arena::new();
let lonely = arena.add_person("lonely", vec![]);
error[E0597]: `arena` does not live long enough
  --> examples/
4  |     let arena: Arena<'static> = Arena::new();
   |                -------------- type annotation requires that `arena` is borrowed for `'static`
5  |     let lonely = arena.add_person("lonely", vec![]);
   |                  ^^^^^ borrowed value does not live long enough
11 | }
   | - `arena` dropped here while still borrowed

The add_person method is somehow suddenly forcing the 'arena parameter of Arena to be set to its own lifetime, constraining it (and making it impossible to force-constrain it to be anything else with type annotations).

What’s going on here is a neat interaction with the &'arena self signature of add_person (i.e. self is &'arena Arena<'self>), and the fact that 'arena in Arena<'arena> is an invariant lifetime.

Usually in your Rust programs, lifetimes are a little bit stretchy-squeezy. The following code compiles just fine:

// ask for two strings *with the same lifetime*
fn take_strings<'a>(x: &'a str, y: &'a str) {}

// string literal with lifetime 'static
let lives_forever = "foo";
// owned string with shorter, local lifetime
let short_lived = String::from("bar");

// still works!
take_strings(lives_forever, &*short_lived);

In this code, Rust is happy to notice that while lives_forever and &*short_lived have different lifetimes, it’s totally acceptable to pretend lives_forever has a shorter lifetime for the duration of the take_strings function. It’s just a reference, a reference valid for a long lifetime is also valid for a shorter lifetime.

The thing is, this stretchy-squeeziness is not the same for all lifetimes! The nomicon chapter on subtyping and variance goes into detail on why this is the case, but a general rule of thumb is that most lifetimes are “squeezy”3 like the one in &'a str above, but if some form of mutability is involved, they are rigid, also known as “invariant”. You can also have “stretchy”4 lifetimes if you’re using function types, but they’re rare.

Our Arena<'arena> is using interior mutability (via the FrozenVec) in a way that makes 'arena invariant.

Let’s look at our two lines of code again. When the compiler sees the first line of the code below, it constructs arena, whose lifetime we’ll call 'a. At this point the type of arena is Arena<'?>, where '? is made up notation for a yet-unconstrained lifetime.

let arena = Arena::new(); 
let lonely = arena.add_person("lonely", vec![]);

Let’s actually rewrite this to be clearer on what the lifetimes are.

let arena = Arena::new(); // type Arena<'?>, lives for 'a

// explicitly write the `self` that gets constructed when you call add_person
let ref_to_arena = &arena; // type &'a Arena<'?>
let lonely = Arena::add_person(ref_to_arena, "lonely", vec![]);

Remember the second rule I listed earlier?

Arena methods should all receive Arena<'arena> as &'arena self, i.e. their self type is &'arena Arena<'arena>

We followed this rule; the signature of add_person is fn add_person(&'arena self). This means that ref_to_arena is forced to have a lifetime that matches the pattern &'arena Arena<'arena>. Currently its lifetime is &'a Arena<'?>, which means that '? is forced to be the same as 'a, i.e. the lifetime of the arena variable itself. If the lifetime weren’t invariant, the compiler would be able to squeeze other lifetimes to fit, but it is invariant, and the unconstrained lifetime is forced to be exactly one lifetime.

And by this rather subtle sleight of hand we’re able to force the compiler to set the lifetime parameter of Arena<'arena> to the lifetime of its instance.

After this, the rest is pretty straightforward. Arena<'arena> holds entries of type Person<'arena>, which is basically a way of saying “a Person that is allowed to reference items of lifetime 'arena, i.e. items in Arena”. type PersonRef<'arena> = &'arena Person<'arena> is a convenient shorthand for “a reference to a Person that lives in Arena and is allowed to reference objects from it”.

What about destructors?

So a thing I’ve not covered so far is how this can be safe in the presence of destructors. If your arena is allowed to have cyclic references, and you write a destructor reading from those cyclic references, whichever participant in the cycle that is deleted later on will have dangling references.

This gets to a really obscure part of Rust, even more obscure than variance. You almost never need to really understand this, beyond “explicit destructors subtly change borrow check behavior”. But it’s useful to know to get a better mental model of what’s going on here.

If we add the following code to our arena example:

impl<'arena> Drop for Person<'arena> {
    fn drop(&mut self) {
        println!("goodbye {:?}",;
        for friend in &self.reverse_follows {
            // potentially dangling!

we actually get this error:

error[E0597]: `arena` does not live long enough
  --> examples/
5  |     let lonely = arena.add_person("lonely", vec![]);
   |                  ^^^^^ borrowed value does not live long enough
11 | }
   | -
   | |
   | `arena` dropped here while still borrowed
   | borrow might be used here, when `arena` is dropped and runs the destructor for type `Arena<'_>`

The presence of destructors subtly changes the behavior of the borrow checker around self-referential lifetimes. The exact rules are tricky and explained in the nomicon, but essentially what happened was that the existence of a custom destructor on Person<'arena> made 'arena in Person (and thus Arena) a lifetime which is “observed during destruction”. This is then taken into account during borrow checking – suddenly the implicit drop() at the end of the scope is known to be able to read 'arena data, and Rust makes the appropriate conclusion that drop() will be able to read things after they’ve been cleaned up, since destruction is itself a mutable operation, and drop() is run interspersed in it.

Of course, a reasonable question to ask is how we can store things like Box and FrozenVec in this arena if destructors aren’t allowed to “wrap” types with 'arena. The reason is that Rust knows that Drop on Box cannot inspect person.follows because Box does not even know what Person is, and has promised to never try and find out. This wouldn’t necessarily be true if we had a random generic type since the destructor can call trait methods (or specialized blanket methods) which do know how to read the contents of Person, but in such a case the subtly changed borrow checker rules would kick in again. The stdlib types and other custom datastructures achieve this with an escape hatch, #[may_dangle] (also known as “the eyepatch”5), which allows you to pinky swear that you won’t be reading from a lifetime or generic parameter in a custom destructor.

This applies to crates like typed-arena as well; if you are creating cycles you will not be able to write custom destructors on the types you put in the arena. You can write custom destructors with typed-arena as long as you refrain from mutating things in ways that can create cycles; so you will not be able to use interior mutability to have one arena entry point to another.

Thanks to Mark Cohen and Nika Layzell for reviewing drafts of this post.

  1. But not in a cyclic way; the borrow checker will enforce this! 

  2. You may wonder how it is safe for destructors to be safely run on cyclic references – after all, the destructor of whichever entry gets destroyed second will be able to read a dangling reference. We’ll cover this later in the post but it has to do with drop check, and specifically that if you attempt to set up cycles, the only explicit destructors allowed on the arena entries themselves will be ones on appropriately marked types. 

  3. The technical term for this is “covariant lifetime” 

  4. The technical term for this is “contravariant lifetime” 

  5. Because you’re claiming the destructor “can’t see” the type or lifetime, see?