In Pursuit of Laziness

Manish Goregaokar's blog

A Rough Proposal for Sum Types in Go

Posted by Manish Goregaokar on February 01, 2018 in programming, rust

Sum types are pretty cool. Just like how a struct is basically “This contains one of these and one of these”, a sum type is “This contains one of these or one of these”.

So for example, the following sum type in Rust:

enum Foo {

or Swift:

enum Foo {
    case stringy(String),
    case numerical(Int)

would be one where it’s either Foo::Stringy (Foo::stringy for swift), containing a String, or Foo::Numerical, containing an integer.

This can be pretty useful. For example, messages between threads are often of a “this or that or that or that” form.

The nice thing is, matching (switching) on these enums is usually exhaustive – you must list all the cases (or include a default arm) for your code to compile. This leads to a useful component of type safety – if you add a message to your message passing system, you’ll know where to update it.

Go doesn’t have these. Go does have interfaces, which are dynamically dispatched. The drawback here is that you do not get the exhaustiveness condition, and consumers of your library can even add further cases. (And, of course, dynamic dispatch can be slow). You can get exhaustiveness in Go with external tools, but it’s preferable to have such things in the language IMO.

Many years ago when I was learning Go I wrote a blog post about what I liked and disliked as a Rustacean learning Go. Since then, I’ve spent a lot more time with Go, and I’ve learned to like each Go design decision that I initially disliked, except for the lack of sum types. Most of my issues arose from “trying to program Rust in Go”, i.e. using idioms that are natural to Rust (or other languages I’d used previously). Once I got used to the programming style, I realized that aside from the lack of sum types I really didn’t find much missing from the language. Perhaps improvements to error handling.

Now, my intention here isn’t really to sell sum types. They’re somewhat controversial for Go, and there are good arguments on both sides. You can see one discussion on this topic here. If I were to make a more concrete proposal I’d probably try to motivate this in much more depth. But even I’m not very strongly of the opinion that Go needs sum types; I have a slight preference for it.

Instead, I’m going to try and sketch this proposal for sum types that has been floating around my mind for a while. I end up mentioning it often and it’s nice to have something to link to. Overall, I think this “fits well” with the existing Go language design.

The proposal

The essence is pretty straightforward: Extend interfaces to allow for “closed interfaces”. These are interfaces that are only implemented for a small list of types.

Writing the Foo sum type above would be:

type Foo interface {
    for string, int

It doesn’t even need to have functions defined on it.

The interface functions can only be called if you have an interface object; they are not directly available on variant types without explicitly casting (Foo("...").SomeFunction()).

(I’m not strongly for the for keyword syntax, it’s just a suggestion. The core idea is that you define an interface and you define the types it closes over. Somehow.)

A better example would be an interface for a message-passing system for Raft:

type VoteRequest struct {
    CandidateId uint
    Term uint
    // ...

type VoteResponse struct {
    Term uint
    VoteGranted bool
    VoterId uint

type AppendRequest struct {

type AppendResponse struct {
// ...
type RaftMessage interface {
    for VoteRequest, VoteResponse, AppendRequest, AppendResponse

Now, you use type switches for dealing with these:

switch value := msg.(type) {
    case VoteRequest:
        if value.Term <= me.Term {
        } else {
            me.accept_vote(value.CandidateId, value.Term)
    case VoteResponse: // ...
    case AppendRequest: // ...
    case AppendResponse: // ...

There is no need for the default case, unless you wish to leave one or more of the cases out.

Ideally, these could be implemented as inline structs instead of using dynamic dispatch. I’m not sure what this entails for the GC design, but I’d love to hear thoughts on this.

We also make it possible to add methods to closed interfaces. This is in the spirit of this proposal, where you allow

func (message RaftMessage) Process(me Me) error {
    // message handling logic

for closed interfaces.

This aligns more with how sum types are written and used in other languages; instead of assuming that each method will be a switch on the variant, you can write arbitrary code that may switch on the type but it can also just call other methods. This is really nice because you can write methods in both ways – if it’s a “responsibility of the inner type” kind of method, require it in the interface and delegate it to the individual types. If it’s a “responsibility of the interface” method, write it as a method on the interface as a whole. I kind of wish Rust had this, because in Rust you sometimes end up writing things like:

match foo {
    Foo::Stringy(s) => s.process(),
    Foo::Numerical(n) => n.process(),
    // ...

Yes, this would work better as a trait, but then you lose some niceties of Rust enums. With this proposal Go can have it both ways.

Anyway, thoughts? This is a really rough proposal, and I’m not sure how receptive other Gophers will be to this, nor how complex its implementation would be. I don’t really intend to submit this as a formal proposal, but if someone else wants to they are more than welcome to build on this idea.