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// Copyright 2012-2014 The Rust Project Developers. See the COPYRIGHT
// file at the top-level directory of this distribution and at
// http://rust-lang.org/COPYRIGHT.
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 <LICENSE-APACHE or
// http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0> or the MIT license
// <LICENSE-MIT or http://opensource.org/licenses/MIT>, at your
// option. This file may not be copied, modified, or distributed
// except according to those terms.

//! Shareable mutable containers.
//!
//! Values of the `Cell<T>` and `RefCell<T>` types may be mutated through shared references (i.e.
//! the common `&T` type), whereas most Rust types can only be mutated through unique (`&mut T`)
//! references. We say that `Cell<T>` and `RefCell<T>` provide 'interior mutability', in contrast
//! with typical Rust types that exhibit 'inherited mutability'.
//!
//! Cell types come in two flavors: `Cell<T>` and `RefCell<T>`. `Cell<T>` implements interior
//! mutability by moving values in and out of the `Cell<T>`. To use references instead of values,
//! one must use the `RefCell<T>` type, acquiring a write lock before mutating. `Cell<T>` provides
//! methods to retrieve and change the current interior value:
//!
//!  - For types that implement `Copy`, the `get` method retrieves the current interior value.
//!  - For types that implement `Default`, the `take` method replaces the current interior value
//!    with `Default::default()` and returns the replaced value.
//!  - For all types, the `replace` method replaces the current interior value and returns the
//!    replaced value and the `into_inner` method consumes the `Cell<T>` and returns the interior
//!    value. Additionally, the `set` method replaces the interior value, dropping the replaced
//!    value.
//!
//! `RefCell<T>` uses Rust's lifetimes to implement 'dynamic borrowing', a process whereby one can
//! claim temporary, exclusive, mutable access to the inner value. Borrows for `RefCell<T>`s are
//! tracked 'at runtime', unlike Rust's native reference types which are entirely tracked
//! statically, at compile time. Because `RefCell<T>` borrows are dynamic it is possible to attempt
//! to borrow a value that is already mutably borrowed; when this happens it results in thread
//! panic.
//!
//! # When to choose interior mutability
//!
//! The more common inherited mutability, where one must have unique access to mutate a value, is
//! one of the key language elements that enables Rust to reason strongly about pointer aliasing,
//! statically preventing crash bugs. Because of that, inherited mutability is preferred, and
//! interior mutability is something of a last resort. Since cell types enable mutation where it
//! would otherwise be disallowed though, there are occasions when interior mutability might be
//! appropriate, or even *must* be used, e.g.
//!
//! * Introducing mutability 'inside' of something immutable
//! * Implementation details of logically-immutable methods.
//! * Mutating implementations of `Clone`.
//!
//! ## Introducing mutability 'inside' of something immutable
//!
//! Many shared smart pointer types, including `Rc<T>` and `Arc<T>`, provide containers that can be
//! cloned and shared between multiple parties. Because the contained values may be
//! multiply-aliased, they can only be borrowed with `&`, not `&mut`. Without cells it would be
//! impossible to mutate data inside of these smart pointers at all.
//!
//! It's very common then to put a `RefCell<T>` inside shared pointer types to reintroduce
//! mutability:
//!
//! ```
//! use std::collections::HashMap;
//! use std::cell::RefCell;
//! use std::rc::Rc;
//!
//! fn main() {
//!     let shared_map: Rc<RefCell<_>> = Rc::new(RefCell::new(HashMap::new()));
//!     shared_map.borrow_mut().insert("africa", 92388);
//!     shared_map.borrow_mut().insert("kyoto", 11837);
//!     shared_map.borrow_mut().insert("piccadilly", 11826);
//!     shared_map.borrow_mut().insert("marbles", 38);
//! }
//! ```
//!
//! Note that this example uses `Rc<T>` and not `Arc<T>`. `RefCell<T>`s are for single-threaded
//! scenarios. Consider using `RwLock<T>` or `Mutex<T>` if you need shared mutability in a
//! multi-threaded situation.
//!
//! ## Implementation details of logically-immutable methods
//!
//! Occasionally it may be desirable not to expose in an API that there is mutation happening
//! "under the hood". This may be because logically the operation is immutable, but e.g. caching
//! forces the implementation to perform mutation; or because you must employ mutation to implement
//! a trait method that was originally defined to take `&self`.
//!
//! ```
//! # #![allow(dead_code)]
//! use std::cell::RefCell;
//!
//! struct Graph {
//!     edges: Vec<(i32, i32)>,
//!     span_tree_cache: RefCell<Option<Vec<(i32, i32)>>>
//! }
//!
//! impl Graph {
//!     fn minimum_spanning_tree(&self) -> Vec<(i32, i32)> {
//!         // Create a new scope to contain the lifetime of the
//!         // dynamic borrow
//!         {
//!             // Take a reference to the inside of cache cell
//!             let mut cache = self.span_tree_cache.borrow_mut();
//!             if cache.is_some() {
//!                 return cache.as_ref().unwrap().clone();
//!             }
//!
//!             let span_tree = self.calc_span_tree();
//!             *cache = Some(span_tree);
//!         }
//!
//!         // Recursive call to return the just-cached value.
//!         // Note that if we had not let the previous borrow
//!         // of the cache fall out of scope then the subsequent
//!         // recursive borrow would cause a dynamic thread panic.
//!         // This is the major hazard of using `RefCell`.
//!         self.minimum_spanning_tree()
//!     }
//! #   fn calc_span_tree(&self) -> Vec<(i32, i32)> { vec![] }
//! }
//! ```
//!
//! ## Mutating implementations of `Clone`
//!
//! This is simply a special - but common - case of the previous: hiding mutability for operations
//! that appear to be immutable. The `clone` method is expected to not change the source value, and
//! is declared to take `&self`, not `&mut self`. Therefore any mutation that happens in the
//! `clone` method must use cell types. For example, `Rc<T>` maintains its reference counts within a
//! `Cell<T>`.
//!
//! ```
//! #![feature(core_intrinsics)]
//! #![feature(shared)]
//! use std::cell::Cell;
//! use std::ptr::Shared;
//! use std::intrinsics::abort;
//!
//! struct Rc<T: ?Sized> {
//!     ptr: Shared<RcBox<T>>
//! }
//!
//! struct RcBox<T: ?Sized> {
//!     strong: Cell<usize>,
//!     refcount: Cell<usize>,
//!     value: T,
//! }
//!
//! impl<T: ?Sized> Clone for Rc<T> {
//!     fn clone(&self) -> Rc<T> {
//!         self.inc_strong();
//!         Rc { ptr: self.ptr }
//!     }
//! }
//!
//! trait RcBoxPtr<T: ?Sized> {
//!
//!     fn inner(&self) -> &RcBox<T>;
//!
//!     fn strong(&self) -> usize {
//!         self.inner().strong.get()
//!     }
//!
//!     fn inc_strong(&self) {
//!         self.inner()
//!             .strong
//!             .set(self.strong()
//!                      .checked_add(1)
//!                      .unwrap_or_else(|| unsafe { abort() }));
//!     }
//! }
//!
//! impl<T: ?Sized> RcBoxPtr<T> for Rc<T> {
//!    fn inner(&self) -> &RcBox<T> {
//!        unsafe {
//!            self.ptr.as_ref()
//!        }
//!    }
//! }
//! ```
//!

#![stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]

use cmp::Ordering;
use fmt::{self, Debug, Display};
use marker::Unsize;
use mem;
use ops::{Deref, DerefMut, CoerceUnsized};
use ptr;

/// A mutable memory location.
///
/// # Examples
///
/// Here you can see how using `Cell<T>` allows to use mutable field inside
/// immutable struct (which is also called 'interior mutability').
///
/// ```
/// use std::cell::Cell;
///
/// struct SomeStruct {
///     regular_field: u8,
///     special_field: Cell<u8>,
/// }
///
/// let my_struct = SomeStruct {
///     regular_field: 0,
///     special_field: Cell::new(1),
/// };
///
/// let new_value = 100;
///
/// // ERROR, because my_struct is immutable
/// // my_struct.regular_field = new_value;
///
/// // WORKS, although `my_struct` is immutable, field `special_field` is mutable because it is Cell
/// my_struct.special_field.set(new_value);
/// assert_eq!(my_struct.special_field.get(), new_value);
/// ```
///
/// See the [module-level documentation](index.html) for more.
#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
pub struct Cell<T> {
    value: UnsafeCell<T>,
}

impl<T:Copy> Cell<T> {
    /// Returns a copy of the contained value.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::Cell;
    ///
    /// let c = Cell::new(5);
    ///
    /// let five = c.get();
    /// ```
    #[inline]
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn get(&self) -> T {
        unsafe{ *self.value.get() }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
unsafe impl<T> Send for Cell<T> where T: Send {}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<T> !Sync for Cell<T> {}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<T:Copy> Clone for Cell<T> {
    #[inline]
    fn clone(&self) -> Cell<T> {
        Cell::new(self.get())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<T:Default> Default for Cell<T> {
    /// Creates a `Cell<T>`, with the `Default` value for T.
    #[inline]
    fn default() -> Cell<T> {
        Cell::new(Default::default())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<T:PartialEq + Copy> PartialEq for Cell<T> {
    #[inline]
    fn eq(&self, other: &Cell<T>) -> bool {
        self.get() == other.get()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "cell_eq", since = "1.2.0")]
impl<T:Eq + Copy> Eq for Cell<T> {}

#[stable(feature = "cell_ord", since = "1.10.0")]
impl<T:PartialOrd + Copy> PartialOrd for Cell<T> {
    #[inline]
    fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &Cell<T>) -> Option<Ordering> {
        self.get().partial_cmp(&other.get())
    }

    #[inline]
    fn lt(&self, other: &Cell<T>) -> bool {
        self.get() < other.get()
    }

    #[inline]
    fn le(&self, other: &Cell<T>) -> bool {
        self.get() <= other.get()
    }

    #[inline]
    fn gt(&self, other: &Cell<T>) -> bool {
        self.get() > other.get()
    }

    #[inline]
    fn ge(&self, other: &Cell<T>) -> bool {
        self.get() >= other.get()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "cell_ord", since = "1.10.0")]
impl<T:Ord + Copy> Ord for Cell<T> {
    #[inline]
    fn cmp(&self, other: &Cell<T>) -> Ordering {
        self.get().cmp(&other.get())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "cell_from", since = "1.12.0")]
impl<T> From<T> for Cell<T> {
    fn from(t: T) -> Cell<T> {
        Cell::new(t)
    }
}

impl<T> Cell<T> {
    /// Creates a new `Cell` containing the given value.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::Cell;
    ///
    /// let c = Cell::new(5);
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[rustc_const_unstable(feature = "const_cell_new")]
    #[inline]
    pub const fn new(value: T) -> Cell<T> {
        Cell {
            value: UnsafeCell::new(value),
        }
    }

    /// Returns a raw pointer to the underlying data in this cell.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::Cell;
    ///
    /// let c = Cell::new(5);
    ///
    /// let ptr = c.as_ptr();
    /// ```
    #[inline]
    #[stable(feature = "cell_as_ptr", since = "1.12.0")]
    pub fn as_ptr(&self) -> *mut T {
        self.value.get()
    }

    /// Returns a mutable reference to the underlying data.
    ///
    /// This call borrows `Cell` mutably (at compile-time) which guarantees
    /// that we possess the only reference.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::Cell;
    ///
    /// let mut c = Cell::new(5);
    /// *c.get_mut() += 1;
    ///
    /// assert_eq!(c.get(), 6);
    /// ```
    #[inline]
    #[stable(feature = "cell_get_mut", since = "1.11.0")]
    pub fn get_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T {
        unsafe {
            &mut *self.value.get()
        }
    }

    /// Sets the contained value.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::Cell;
    ///
    /// let c = Cell::new(5);
    ///
    /// c.set(10);
    /// ```
    #[inline]
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn set(&self, val: T) {
        let old = self.replace(val);
        drop(old);
    }

    /// Swaps the values of two Cells.
    /// Difference with `std::mem::swap` is that this function doesn't require `&mut` reference.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::Cell;
    ///
    /// let c1 = Cell::new(5i32);
    /// let c2 = Cell::new(10i32);
    /// c1.swap(&c2);
    /// assert_eq!(10, c1.get());
    /// assert_eq!(5, c2.get());
    /// ```
    #[inline]
    #[stable(feature = "move_cell", since = "1.17.0")]
    pub fn swap(&self, other: &Self) {
        if ptr::eq(self, other) {
            return;
        }
        unsafe {
            ptr::swap(self.value.get(), other.value.get());
        }
    }

    /// Replaces the contained value, and returns it.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::Cell;
    ///
    /// let cell = Cell::new(5);
    /// assert_eq!(cell.get(), 5);
    /// assert_eq!(cell.replace(10), 5);
    /// assert_eq!(cell.get(), 10);
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "move_cell", since = "1.17.0")]
    pub fn replace(&self, val: T) -> T {
        mem::replace(unsafe { &mut *self.value.get() }, val)
    }

    /// Unwraps the value.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::Cell;
    ///
    /// let c = Cell::new(5);
    /// let five = c.into_inner();
    ///
    /// assert_eq!(five, 5);
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "move_cell", since = "1.17.0")]
    pub fn into_inner(self) -> T {
        unsafe { self.value.into_inner() }
    }
}

impl<T: Default> Cell<T> {
    /// Takes the value of the cell, leaving `Default::default()` in its place.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::Cell;
    ///
    /// let c = Cell::new(5);
    /// let five = c.take();
    ///
    /// assert_eq!(five, 5);
    /// assert_eq!(c.into_inner(), 0);
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "move_cell", since = "1.17.0")]
    pub fn take(&self) -> T {
        self.replace(Default::default())
    }
}

#[unstable(feature = "coerce_unsized", issue = "27732")]
impl<T: CoerceUnsized<U>, U> CoerceUnsized<Cell<U>> for Cell<T> {}

/// A mutable memory location with dynamically checked borrow rules
///
/// See the [module-level documentation](index.html) for more.
#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
pub struct RefCell<T: ?Sized> {
    borrow: Cell<BorrowFlag>,
    value: UnsafeCell<T>,
}

/// An error returned by [`RefCell::try_borrow`](struct.RefCell.html#method.try_borrow).
#[stable(feature = "try_borrow", since = "1.13.0")]
pub struct BorrowError {
    _private: (),
}

#[stable(feature = "try_borrow", since = "1.13.0")]
impl Debug for BorrowError {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        f.debug_struct("BorrowError").finish()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "try_borrow", since = "1.13.0")]
impl Display for BorrowError {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        Display::fmt("already mutably borrowed", f)
    }
}

/// An error returned by [`RefCell::try_borrow_mut`](struct.RefCell.html#method.try_borrow_mut).
#[stable(feature = "try_borrow", since = "1.13.0")]
pub struct BorrowMutError {
    _private: (),
}

#[stable(feature = "try_borrow", since = "1.13.0")]
impl Debug for BorrowMutError {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        f.debug_struct("BorrowMutError").finish()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "try_borrow", since = "1.13.0")]
impl Display for BorrowMutError {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        Display::fmt("already borrowed", f)
    }
}

// Values [1, MAX-1] represent the number of `Ref` active
// (will not outgrow its range since `usize` is the size of the address space)
type BorrowFlag = usize;
const UNUSED: BorrowFlag = 0;
const WRITING: BorrowFlag = !0;

impl<T> RefCell<T> {
    /// Creates a new `RefCell` containing `value`.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::RefCell;
    ///
    /// let c = RefCell::new(5);
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[rustc_const_unstable(feature = "const_refcell_new")]
    #[inline]
    pub const fn new(value: T) -> RefCell<T> {
        RefCell {
            value: UnsafeCell::new(value),
            borrow: Cell::new(UNUSED),
        }
    }

    /// Consumes the `RefCell`, returning the wrapped value.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::RefCell;
    ///
    /// let c = RefCell::new(5);
    ///
    /// let five = c.into_inner();
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn into_inner(self) -> T {
        // Since this function takes `self` (the `RefCell`) by value, the
        // compiler statically verifies that it is not currently borrowed.
        // Therefore the following assertion is just a `debug_assert!`.
        debug_assert!(self.borrow.get() == UNUSED);
        unsafe { self.value.into_inner() }
    }

    /// Replaces the wrapped value with a new one, returning the old value,
    /// without deinitializing either one.
    ///
    /// This function corresponds to [`std::mem::replace`](../mem/fn.replace.html).
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// #![feature(refcell_replace_swap)]
    /// use std::cell::RefCell;
    /// let c = RefCell::new(5);
    /// let u = c.replace(6);
    /// assert_eq!(u, 5);
    /// assert_eq!(c, RefCell::new(6));
    /// ```
    ///
    /// # Panics
    ///
    /// This function will panic if the `RefCell` has any outstanding borrows,
    /// whether or not they are full mutable borrows.
    #[inline]
    #[unstable(feature = "refcell_replace_swap", issue="43570")]
    pub fn replace(&self, t: T) -> T {
        mem::replace(&mut *self.borrow_mut(), t)
    }

    /// Swaps the wrapped value of `self` with the wrapped value of `other`,
    /// without deinitializing either one.
    ///
    /// This function corresponds to [`std::mem::swap`](../mem/fn.swap.html).
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// #![feature(refcell_replace_swap)]
    /// use std::cell::RefCell;
    /// let c = RefCell::new(5);
    /// let d = RefCell::new(6);
    /// c.swap(&d);
    /// assert_eq!(c, RefCell::new(6));
    /// assert_eq!(d, RefCell::new(5));
    /// ```
    ///
    /// # Panics
    ///
    /// This function will panic if either `RefCell` has any outstanding borrows,
    /// whether or not they are full mutable borrows.
    #[inline]
    #[unstable(feature = "refcell_replace_swap", issue="43570")]
    pub fn swap(&self, other: &Self) {
        mem::swap(&mut *self.borrow_mut(), &mut *other.borrow_mut())
    }
}

impl<T: ?Sized> RefCell<T> {
    /// Immutably borrows the wrapped value.
    ///
    /// The borrow lasts until the returned `Ref` exits scope. Multiple
    /// immutable borrows can be taken out at the same time.
    ///
    /// # Panics
    ///
    /// Panics if the value is currently mutably borrowed. For a non-panicking variant, use
    /// [`try_borrow`](#method.try_borrow).
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::RefCell;
    ///
    /// let c = RefCell::new(5);
    ///
    /// let borrowed_five = c.borrow();
    /// let borrowed_five2 = c.borrow();
    /// ```
    ///
    /// An example of panic:
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::RefCell;
    /// use std::thread;
    ///
    /// let result = thread::spawn(move || {
    ///    let c = RefCell::new(5);
    ///    let m = c.borrow_mut();
    ///
    ///    let b = c.borrow(); // this causes a panic
    /// }).join();
    ///
    /// assert!(result.is_err());
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn borrow(&self) -> Ref<T> {
        self.try_borrow().expect("already mutably borrowed")
    }

    /// Immutably borrows the wrapped value, returning an error if the value is currently mutably
    /// borrowed.
    ///
    /// The borrow lasts until the returned `Ref` exits scope. Multiple immutable borrows can be
    /// taken out at the same time.
    ///
    /// This is the non-panicking variant of [`borrow`](#method.borrow).
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::RefCell;
    ///
    /// let c = RefCell::new(5);
    ///
    /// {
    ///     let m = c.borrow_mut();
    ///     assert!(c.try_borrow().is_err());
    /// }
    ///
    /// {
    ///     let m = c.borrow();
    ///     assert!(c.try_borrow().is_ok());
    /// }
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "try_borrow", since = "1.13.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn try_borrow(&self) -> Result<Ref<T>, BorrowError> {
        match BorrowRef::new(&self.borrow) {
            Some(b) => Ok(Ref {
                value: unsafe { &*self.value.get() },
                borrow: b,
            }),
            None => Err(BorrowError { _private: () }),
        }
    }

    /// Mutably borrows the wrapped value.
    ///
    /// The borrow lasts until the returned `RefMut` exits scope. The value
    /// cannot be borrowed while this borrow is active.
    ///
    /// # Panics
    ///
    /// Panics if the value is currently borrowed. For a non-panicking variant, use
    /// [`try_borrow_mut`](#method.try_borrow_mut).
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::RefCell;
    ///
    /// let c = RefCell::new(5);
    ///
    /// *c.borrow_mut() = 7;
    ///
    /// assert_eq!(*c.borrow(), 7);
    /// ```
    ///
    /// An example of panic:
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::RefCell;
    /// use std::thread;
    ///
    /// let result = thread::spawn(move || {
    ///    let c = RefCell::new(5);
    ///    let m = c.borrow();
    ///
    ///    let b = c.borrow_mut(); // this causes a panic
    /// }).join();
    ///
    /// assert!(result.is_err());
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn borrow_mut(&self) -> RefMut<T> {
        self.try_borrow_mut().expect("already borrowed")
    }

    /// Mutably borrows the wrapped value, returning an error if the value is currently borrowed.
    ///
    /// The borrow lasts until the returned `RefMut` exits scope. The value cannot be borrowed
    /// while this borrow is active.
    ///
    /// This is the non-panicking variant of [`borrow_mut`](#method.borrow_mut).
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::RefCell;
    ///
    /// let c = RefCell::new(5);
    ///
    /// {
    ///     let m = c.borrow();
    ///     assert!(c.try_borrow_mut().is_err());
    /// }
    ///
    /// assert!(c.try_borrow_mut().is_ok());
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "try_borrow", since = "1.13.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn try_borrow_mut(&self) -> Result<RefMut<T>, BorrowMutError> {
        match BorrowRefMut::new(&self.borrow) {
            Some(b) => Ok(RefMut {
                value: unsafe { &mut *self.value.get() },
                borrow: b,
            }),
            None => Err(BorrowMutError { _private: () }),
        }
    }

    /// Returns a raw pointer to the underlying data in this cell.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::RefCell;
    ///
    /// let c = RefCell::new(5);
    ///
    /// let ptr = c.as_ptr();
    /// ```
    #[inline]
    #[stable(feature = "cell_as_ptr", since = "1.12.0")]
    pub fn as_ptr(&self) -> *mut T {
        self.value.get()
    }

    /// Returns a mutable reference to the underlying data.
    ///
    /// This call borrows `RefCell` mutably (at compile-time) so there is no
    /// need for dynamic checks.
    ///
    /// However be cautious: this method expects `self` to be mutable, which is
    /// generally not the case when using a `RefCell`. Take a look at the
    /// [`borrow_mut`] method instead if `self` isn't mutable.
    ///
    /// Also, please be aware that this method is only for special circumstances and is usually
    /// not what you want. In case of doubt, use [`borrow_mut`] instead.
    ///
    /// [`borrow_mut`]: #method.borrow_mut
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::RefCell;
    ///
    /// let mut c = RefCell::new(5);
    /// *c.get_mut() += 1;
    ///
    /// assert_eq!(c, RefCell::new(6));
    /// ```
    #[inline]
    #[stable(feature = "cell_get_mut", since = "1.11.0")]
    pub fn get_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T {
        unsafe {
            &mut *self.value.get()
        }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
unsafe impl<T: ?Sized> Send for RefCell<T> where T: Send {}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<T: ?Sized> !Sync for RefCell<T> {}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<T: Clone> Clone for RefCell<T> {
    #[inline]
    fn clone(&self) -> RefCell<T> {
        RefCell::new(self.borrow().clone())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<T:Default> Default for RefCell<T> {
    /// Creates a `RefCell<T>`, with the `Default` value for T.
    #[inline]
    fn default() -> RefCell<T> {
        RefCell::new(Default::default())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<T: ?Sized + PartialEq> PartialEq for RefCell<T> {
    #[inline]
    fn eq(&self, other: &RefCell<T>) -> bool {
        *self.borrow() == *other.borrow()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "cell_eq", since = "1.2.0")]
impl<T: ?Sized + Eq> Eq for RefCell<T> {}

#[stable(feature = "cell_ord", since = "1.10.0")]
impl<T: ?Sized + PartialOrd> PartialOrd for RefCell<T> {
    #[inline]
    fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &RefCell<T>) -> Option<Ordering> {
        self.borrow().partial_cmp(&*other.borrow())
    }

    #[inline]
    fn lt(&self, other: &RefCell<T>) -> bool {
        *self.borrow() < *other.borrow()
    }

    #[inline]
    fn le(&self, other: &RefCell<T>) -> bool {
        *self.borrow() <= *other.borrow()
    }

    #[inline]
    fn gt(&self, other: &RefCell<T>) -> bool {
        *self.borrow() > *other.borrow()
    }

    #[inline]
    fn ge(&self, other: &RefCell<T>) -> bool {
        *self.borrow() >= *other.borrow()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "cell_ord", since = "1.10.0")]
impl<T: ?Sized + Ord> Ord for RefCell<T> {
    #[inline]
    fn cmp(&self, other: &RefCell<T>) -> Ordering {
        self.borrow().cmp(&*other.borrow())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "cell_from", since = "1.12.0")]
impl<T> From<T> for RefCell<T> {
    fn from(t: T) -> RefCell<T> {
        RefCell::new(t)
    }
}

#[unstable(feature = "coerce_unsized", issue = "27732")]
impl<T: CoerceUnsized<U>, U> CoerceUnsized<RefCell<U>> for RefCell<T> {}

struct BorrowRef<'b> {
    borrow: &'b Cell<BorrowFlag>,
}

impl<'b> BorrowRef<'b> {
    #[inline]
    fn new(borrow: &'b Cell<BorrowFlag>) -> Option<BorrowRef<'b>> {
        match borrow.get() {
            WRITING => None,
            b => {
                borrow.set(b + 1);
                Some(BorrowRef { borrow: borrow })
            },
        }
    }
}

impl<'b> Drop for BorrowRef<'b> {
    #[inline]
    fn drop(&mut self) {
        let borrow = self.borrow.get();
        debug_assert!(borrow != WRITING && borrow != UNUSED);
        self.borrow.set(borrow - 1);
    }
}

impl<'b> Clone for BorrowRef<'b> {
    #[inline]
    fn clone(&self) -> BorrowRef<'b> {
        // Since this Ref exists, we know the borrow flag
        // is not set to WRITING.
        let borrow = self.borrow.get();
        debug_assert!(borrow != UNUSED);
        // Prevent the borrow counter from overflowing.
        assert!(borrow != WRITING);
        self.borrow.set(borrow + 1);
        BorrowRef { borrow: self.borrow }
    }
}

/// Wraps a borrowed reference to a value in a `RefCell` box.
/// A wrapper type for an immutably borrowed value from a `RefCell<T>`.
///
/// See the [module-level documentation](index.html) for more.
#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
pub struct Ref<'b, T: ?Sized + 'b> {
    value: &'b T,
    borrow: BorrowRef<'b>,
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<'b, T: ?Sized> Deref for Ref<'b, T> {
    type Target = T;

    #[inline]
    fn deref(&self) -> &T {
        self.value
    }
}

impl<'b, T: ?Sized> Ref<'b, T> {
    /// Copies a `Ref`.
    ///
    /// The `RefCell` is already immutably borrowed, so this cannot fail.
    ///
    /// This is an associated function that needs to be used as
    /// `Ref::clone(...)`.  A `Clone` implementation or a method would interfere
    /// with the widespread use of `r.borrow().clone()` to clone the contents of
    /// a `RefCell`.
    #[stable(feature = "cell_extras", since = "1.15.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn clone(orig: &Ref<'b, T>) -> Ref<'b, T> {
        Ref {
            value: orig.value,
            borrow: orig.borrow.clone(),
        }
    }

    /// Make a new `Ref` for a component of the borrowed data.
    ///
    /// The `RefCell` is already immutably borrowed, so this cannot fail.
    ///
    /// This is an associated function that needs to be used as `Ref::map(...)`.
    /// A method would interfere with methods of the same name on the contents
    /// of a `RefCell` used through `Deref`.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::{RefCell, Ref};
    ///
    /// let c = RefCell::new((5, 'b'));
    /// let b1: Ref<(u32, char)> = c.borrow();
    /// let b2: Ref<u32> = Ref::map(b1, |t| &t.0);
    /// assert_eq!(*b2, 5)
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "cell_map", since = "1.8.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn map<U: ?Sized, F>(orig: Ref<'b, T>, f: F) -> Ref<'b, U>
        where F: FnOnce(&T) -> &U
    {
        Ref {
            value: f(orig.value),
            borrow: orig.borrow,
        }
    }
}

#[unstable(feature = "coerce_unsized", issue = "27732")]
impl<'b, T: ?Sized + Unsize<U>, U: ?Sized> CoerceUnsized<Ref<'b, U>> for Ref<'b, T> {}

#[stable(feature = "std_guard_impls", since = "1.20.0")]
impl<'a, T: ?Sized + fmt::Display> fmt::Display for Ref<'a, T> {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        self.value.fmt(f)
    }
}

impl<'b, T: ?Sized> RefMut<'b, T> {
    /// Make a new `RefMut` for a component of the borrowed data, e.g. an enum
    /// variant.
    ///
    /// The `RefCell` is already mutably borrowed, so this cannot fail.
    ///
    /// This is an associated function that needs to be used as
    /// `RefMut::map(...)`.  A method would interfere with methods of the same
    /// name on the contents of a `RefCell` used through `Deref`.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::{RefCell, RefMut};
    ///
    /// let c = RefCell::new((5, 'b'));
    /// {
    ///     let b1: RefMut<(u32, char)> = c.borrow_mut();
    ///     let mut b2: RefMut<u32> = RefMut::map(b1, |t| &mut t.0);
    ///     assert_eq!(*b2, 5);
    ///     *b2 = 42;
    /// }
    /// assert_eq!(*c.borrow(), (42, 'b'));
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "cell_map", since = "1.8.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn map<U: ?Sized, F>(orig: RefMut<'b, T>, f: F) -> RefMut<'b, U>
        where F: FnOnce(&mut T) -> &mut U
    {
        RefMut {
            value: f(orig.value),
            borrow: orig.borrow,
        }
    }
}

struct BorrowRefMut<'b> {
    borrow: &'b Cell<BorrowFlag>,
}

impl<'b> Drop for BorrowRefMut<'b> {
    #[inline]
    fn drop(&mut self) {
        let borrow = self.borrow.get();
        debug_assert!(borrow == WRITING);
        self.borrow.set(UNUSED);
    }
}

impl<'b> BorrowRefMut<'b> {
    #[inline]
    fn new(borrow: &'b Cell<BorrowFlag>) -> Option<BorrowRefMut<'b>> {
        match borrow.get() {
            UNUSED => {
                borrow.set(WRITING);
                Some(BorrowRefMut { borrow: borrow })
            },
            _ => None,
        }
    }
}

/// A wrapper type for a mutably borrowed value from a `RefCell<T>`.
///
/// See the [module-level documentation](index.html) for more.
#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
pub struct RefMut<'b, T: ?Sized + 'b> {
    value: &'b mut T,
    borrow: BorrowRefMut<'b>,
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<'b, T: ?Sized> Deref for RefMut<'b, T> {
    type Target = T;

    #[inline]
    fn deref(&self) -> &T {
        self.value
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<'b, T: ?Sized> DerefMut for RefMut<'b, T> {
    #[inline]
    fn deref_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T {
        self.value
    }
}

#[unstable(feature = "coerce_unsized", issue = "27732")]
impl<'b, T: ?Sized + Unsize<U>, U: ?Sized> CoerceUnsized<RefMut<'b, U>> for RefMut<'b, T> {}

#[stable(feature = "std_guard_impls", since = "1.20.0")]
impl<'a, T: ?Sized + fmt::Display> fmt::Display for RefMut<'a, T> {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        self.value.fmt(f)
    }
}

/// The core primitive for interior mutability in Rust.
///
/// `UnsafeCell<T>` is a type that wraps some `T` and indicates unsafe interior operations on the
/// wrapped type. Types with an `UnsafeCell<T>` field are considered to have an 'unsafe interior'.
/// The `UnsafeCell<T>` type is the only legal way to obtain aliasable data that is considered
/// mutable. In general, transmuting an `&T` type into an `&mut T` is considered undefined behavior.
///
/// The compiler makes optimizations based on the knowledge that `&T` is not mutably aliased or
/// mutated, and that `&mut T` is unique. When building abstractions like `Cell`, `RefCell`,
/// `Mutex`, etc, you need to turn these optimizations off. `UnsafeCell` is the only legal way
/// to do this. When `UnsafeCell<T>` is immutably aliased, it is still safe to obtain a mutable
/// reference to its interior and/or to mutate it. However, it is up to the abstraction designer
/// to ensure that no two mutable references obtained this way are active at the same time, and
/// that there are no active mutable references or mutations when an immutable reference is obtained
/// from the cell. This is often done via runtime checks.
///
/// Note that while mutating or mutably aliasing the contents of an `& UnsafeCell<T>` is
/// okay (provided you enforce the invariants some other way); it is still undefined behavior
/// to have multiple `&mut UnsafeCell<T>` aliases.
///
///
/// Types like `Cell<T>` and `RefCell<T>` use this type to wrap their internal data.
///
/// # Examples
///
/// ```
/// use std::cell::UnsafeCell;
/// use std::marker::Sync;
///
/// # #[allow(dead_code)]
/// struct NotThreadSafe<T> {
///     value: UnsafeCell<T>,
/// }
///
/// unsafe impl<T> Sync for NotThreadSafe<T> {}
/// ```
#[lang = "unsafe_cell"]
#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
pub struct UnsafeCell<T: ?Sized> {
    value: T,
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<T: ?Sized> !Sync for UnsafeCell<T> {}

impl<T> UnsafeCell<T> {
    /// Constructs a new instance of `UnsafeCell` which will wrap the specified
    /// value.
    ///
    /// All access to the inner value through methods is `unsafe`.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::UnsafeCell;
    ///
    /// let uc = UnsafeCell::new(5);
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[rustc_const_unstable(feature = "const_unsafe_cell_new")]
    #[inline]
    pub const fn new(value: T) -> UnsafeCell<T> {
        UnsafeCell { value: value }
    }

    /// Unwraps the value.
    ///
    /// # Safety
    ///
    /// This function is unsafe because this thread or another thread may currently be
    /// inspecting the inner value.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::UnsafeCell;
    ///
    /// let uc = UnsafeCell::new(5);
    ///
    /// let five = unsafe { uc.into_inner() };
    /// ```
    #[inline]
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub unsafe fn into_inner(self) -> T {
        self.value
    }
}

impl<T: ?Sized> UnsafeCell<T> {
    /// Gets a mutable pointer to the wrapped value.
    ///
    /// This can be cast to a pointer of any kind.
    /// Ensure that the access is unique when casting to
    /// `&mut T`, and ensure that there are no mutations or mutable
    /// aliases going on when casting to `&T`
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::cell::UnsafeCell;
    ///
    /// let uc = UnsafeCell::new(5);
    ///
    /// let five = uc.get();
    /// ```
    #[inline]
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn get(&self) -> *mut T {
        &self.value as *const T as *mut T
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "unsafe_cell_default", since = "1.10.0")]
impl<T: Default> Default for UnsafeCell<T> {
    /// Creates an `UnsafeCell`, with the `Default` value for T.
    fn default() -> UnsafeCell<T> {
        UnsafeCell::new(Default::default())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "cell_from", since = "1.12.0")]
impl<T> From<T> for UnsafeCell<T> {
    fn from(t: T) -> UnsafeCell<T> {
        UnsafeCell::new(t)
    }
}

#[unstable(feature = "coerce_unsized", issue = "27732")]
impl<T: CoerceUnsized<U>, U> CoerceUnsized<UnsafeCell<U>> for UnsafeCell<T> {}

#[allow(unused)]
fn assert_coerce_unsized(a: UnsafeCell<&i32>, b: Cell<&i32>, c: RefCell<&i32>) {
    let _: UnsafeCell<&Send> = a;
    let _: Cell<&Send> = b;
    let _: RefCell<&Send> = c;
}